| As part of optimization
Dalsoft provides port of GNU compilers to the Digital Signal
Processor or CPU of your choice (referred as target).
Please click here
for some non
technical details and/or contact us
if you like to further discuss the possibilities of retargeting GNU
compilers to a processor of your choice.
The GNU Compiler Collection gcc offers several
versions of the compiler front ends (C, C++, Objective C, Fortran,
Java) and means for retargeting compiler to a new architecture. The
advantages of using gcc are
too numerous to be mentioned here,
high execution speed of the code it generates is not one of them.
Numerous studies ( for example, this
have shown that code, generated by gcc,
speed achieved by other compilers for the same DSP/CPU target. We
believe that this is due to the nature of the technology that is
available for retargeting (e.g.
description, target description macros etc.) which we found inherently
restrictive and incapable of
allowing implementation with a tight interface between compiler and
hardware architecture which is necessary to achieve high
utilization of the available resources.
To address this problem we at Dalsoft took another approach: we are
using superb front ends, supported by gcc,
fully utilizing the vast
machine-independent (middle-end) optimizations, provided by gcc,
but the final code optimization leave to our
we performed shows such an approach produces code on par or better than
one generated by compilers specially crafted for a particular target.
for the results of another study comparing the code generated by the
gcc compiler, icc compiler
(Intel's compiler specifically designed for
x86) and dco optimized code that was generated by the gcc compiler.
From the users point of
view, our port looks
exactly as most other ports of gcc.
and enable all the options available.
Compiler is activated and, if no-compilation errors has been detected,
assembly code for the program compiled. The assembly code, as produced
by the compiler, may
be processed by gcc
to generated object file. However, in order to
take full advantage of the options and features provided by the target
processor, the next stage, that may be performed, is to process
the assembly code, generated by the compiler, by our
optimizer (dco). Note that use of dco is optional and should be done only if extra optimizations are desirable.
The design and implementation of the gcc
– dco package is done in such a
way as to:
full advantage of the
functionality provided by gcc
we are using front ends,
supported by gcc,
and provide machine description and target specific macros that enable
full and most efficient utilization of the functionality provided
by gcc (e.g vast number of
tight integration between gcc and dco
compiler code generation is
such a way as to enable dco to
perform its work in
most efficient and extensive manner.
At this time we successfully
retargeted gcc package for
StarCore DSP from Freescale.
Retargeting for StarCore
Currently we only offer the
StarCore version of the C compiler - click here
to get a copy.
is a powerful and complicated Digital Signal Processor. It provides
great number of options and superb functionality but also imposes
severe restrictions on the code sequence to be valid and/or optimal. We
feel that generating correct and optimal StarCore code utilizing
only gcc is as difficult as
recreating the smile of Mona Lisa using spray
But integration with our StarCore
solved the problem.
our work using POWERSTONE benchmark suite.
Assembly code was generated by gcc
run with maximum
optimizations (-O3). Optimizer was used with the default set of options
- no special optimizations (e.g. vectorization,
unrolling) were attempted. The results were verified and
performance was compared to one achieved by the Metrowerk compiler
(Motorola's compiler specifically designed for StarCore) run with
The following table lists times (first number) and the total object
size (second number - e.g. 13019/19424 means that code run for 13019
clocks and total size of the object file, text+data, was 19424 bytes)
observed during our study. Needless to say that using sco
special optimization options may produce even better results.